Your Wednesday Briefing

President Trump abruptly fired John Bolton, his national security adviser, with whom he had fundamental disagreements over Iran, North Korea and Afghanistan.

Mr. Bolton, a foreign policy hawk who insisted he resigned, objected to attempts to pursue diplomatic avenues with players considered American enemies. And he angered Mr. Trump with a last-minute battle against a peace agreement with the Taliban.

Mr. Trump said he would appoint a replacement in the “next week.”

Voice of restraint: Mr. Bolton was the in-house skeptic who checked Mr. Trump’s most unorthodox instincts. Whether it was inviting the Taliban to Camp David or cooperating with Russia, he was the national security adviser who said no.

Related: The Trump administration’s decision to pull the plug on negotiations with the Taliban at Camp David inadvertently provided the Afghan president, Ashraf Ghani, with a lifeline, bringing his re-election bid back into the spotlight.

Two years ago, a pioneering state government effort in central India to recruit transgender police officers seemed like a rare opportunity for some in the community to move out of poverty and protect themselves from harassment and exclusion.

The answer emerges from global phenomena. Radiation from the sun falls unequally on our tilted, spinning planet, hitting with most impact at the Equator. There, the hot air rises into the atmosphere and power tropical cyclones through evaporation and the Coriolis effect, the spin created by Earth’s curvature.

Tropical cyclones in the Atlantic — hurricanes — are most likely to occur after surface temperatures peak and large amounts of moisture are already in the atmosphere. That season lasts from June to November, with the most perilous period from mid-August to mid-October.

Tropical cyclones in the northwestern Pacific — typhoons — can form year-round because of warmer waters, but they most commonly occur from May to October.

And global warming has increased the amount of energy absorbed by oceans, which scientists believe has resulted in stronger storms.

That’s it for this briefing. And sorry, another correction. Tuesday’s Back Story misspelled the surname of Alan Siegel, the brand consultant who devised the N.B.A.’s logo. See you next time.

— Melina

Thank you
To Mark Josephson and Eleanor Stanford for the break from the news. Will Dudding, an assistant in the Standards Department, wrote today’s Back Story. You can reach the team at [email protected]

• We’re listening to “The Daily.” Our latest episode is about the collapse of talks between the U.S. and the Taliban.
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• On Thursday, our columnist Andrew Ross Sorkin will interview the president of Microsoft, Brad Smith, and the U.S. Treasury secretary, Steven Mnuchin, in Washington. The interviews will be livestreamed on
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